Abstracts of Rorschach and projective methods

Rorschach and projective method (Vol. 3, 2007)
(Yearbook of the Czech Society for Rorschach and Projective Method)

Abstract:

The alexithymia construct and the Rorschach test
Piero Porcelli

In the last 30 years, research on the alexithymia construct has become one of the
most important and promising field of psychosomatic medicine. It is also one of the
few domains of psychosomatic medicine where we count several Rorschach studies.
this construct is far from being definite and research is still in progress all over the
world, and despite the Rorschach is potentially of great utility in this field because of
the methodological problems evidenced in the most used assessment instruments
such as self-report scales, literature shows several methodological pitfalls in the published
Rorschach studies on alexithymia, thus leading to controversial results. In this
paper author indicated a possible way for developing a sounder Rorschach use in this
field and suggested a tentative Rorschach Alexithymia Index.

Ego impairment index – diagnostic a research possibilities
Martin Lečbych

The goal of this article is to acquiant readers with the history of the origin of the Ego impairment index. It mentions crucial researches which have investigated this index in America and Europe. This paper is aimed mainly at diagnostic possibilities in a common practice and implies further possibilities of research. There are also results of our orientation investigative survey on 23 patients from the heterogenous psychiatric population in this article. We found out that the rate of the Ego impairment index correlates statistically highly significantly with a number of popular answers in our orientation survey. These findings are supported by the given presumption (Tibon, Porcelli and Weinberger, 2003) that the rate of the Ego impairment index can be understood as a dichotomic parameter, which is a scale of a human psychological shift to an inner (imaginative) and outer reality.
Key words: Rorschach metod, Ego Impairment Index, Egopsychology

Application of the Rorschach method in children
Dana Krejčířová

The paper deals with developmental stages of children’s Rorschach protocols and their approach to the test situation in a preschool age. The author describes a relationship of the perseverative, confabulatory and conventional stages of Rorschach protocols and a social and cognitive development of preschool children and point to a usefulness of qualitative developmental approach to interpretation of the test data. This approach is documented on several cases. We further present the main changes with age in the perception, determinants, contents and special scores from preschool age up to adolescence and emphasize an importance of developmental approach for interpretations of regressive signs in older children and adults. Finally, there is shortly mentioned the difference of characteristic signs of some psychical disorders in the Rorschach protocols in childhood and adulthood.
Key words: developmental stages of Rorschach method - perseverative, confabulatory and conventional stage, development of scores and special phenomena; regressive signs; qualitative and developmental approach to interpretation

Moral message in TAT stories of adolescent with conduct disorder
Táňa Fikarová, Ivo Čermák

Moral import in the TAT stories of adolescents with conduct disorders
This paper is focused on moral import identification in TAT stories. Thirty five adolescents participated in the qualitative study, 15 with conduct disorder and 20 without evident antisocial behavior. Table 1, 2, 3BM, 4, and 13MF were used. Comparison of moral import in the TAT of these two groups showed that adolescents with antisocial behavior had developed their stories impulsively, used more aggressive strategy in solving story dilemma and the feelings of empathy and guilt played marginal role in their narration. There were no noticeable differences between boys and girls. The moral import interpretation is illustrated by case vignette analysis and broader interpretative perspective is introduced as well.

Diagnostic of object relations with TAT
Tereza Soukupová, Petr Goldmann

Object relations assessment in the Thematic Apperception Test
The article concerns with the assessment of object relations and social cognition through narrative material received in apperception techniques. The authors inform about the Social Cognition Object Relation Scale (SCORS) and its clinical posibilities. They present the Czech version of SCORS and its dimensions: Complexity of representations of people, Affective quality of representations, Capacity for emotional investment in relationships, Emotional investment in values and moral standards, Understanding of social causality, Experience and management of aggressive impulses, Self-esteem, Identity and coherence of self. Psychometric qualities of this scale is supported by scientific studies. The authors describe an example of SCORS usage .

Drawing H-T-P test by J. N. Buck
Karel Gawlik

In the article the drawing H-T-P test by J. N. Buck, as it has been published in its original form, is described. It describes how the test is being used, including the questioning about drawings, which is obligatory part of the test. It was also applied to determine the level of intellect functions. Predominantly it was interpreted as a personality test. The whole interpretative procedure is presented. In former Czechoslovakia the test had been applied only exceptionally.


Rorschach and projective method (Vol. 2, 2006)
(Yearbook of the Czech Society for Rorschach and Projective Method)

Psychodynamic analysis of speech in projective tests: Lausanne group approach
Odile Husain

The contribution served as a preparatory text for participants who attended a seminar of the
author, which was organized by the Czech Society for Rorschach and projective methods. The paper deals with psychodynamic and qualitative approach to projective techniques according to Lausanne group. Whether empirical or psychodynamic, methods of analysis of Rorschach and projective tests are always product of some personality theory. Both have the same aim, namely to reveal diversity of interpretive phenomena, which are generated by these timeless tests. The author’s approach is based on psychoanalytic theory and structural model of psychopathology developed by Bergeret (1974) and Kernberg (1974). She is also inspired by Piaget’s theory of cognitive processes. The author emphasizes an importance of speech form and verbal formulations as an information source for analysis of their linking to personality organization of the individual. She pays a special attention to the three phenomena: symmetry and reflection, relationship between examiner and examinee, and analysis of using „or“ conjunction. She finds that they can be particularly related to borderline, perverse and psychotic personality organization.
Key words: Rorschach method, psychodynamic and qualitative approach; levels of personality organization; symmetry and reflection; relationship between examiner and examinee, „or“ responses.

Psychodynamic Analysis of Rorschach Responses in Mrs. L. P. protocol
Odile Husain, Jan Ženatý

The ROR protocol of Mrs. L.P. is discussed from the following points of view: object relations, self-boundaries, identity, anxiety, defense mechanism and reality testing. Characteristics of borderline, eventually psychotic structure are evident in most of these aspects. The need of dependency together with fear of it was found at the object relations level. The border between self and object are disturbed and integrity of self and object is endangered by fragmentation. Fragmentation anxiety, which is typical for psychotic structure, is predominant sign of protocol. Persecutory ideas as a source of fear create a clinical picture of paranoid psychosis. Manic defensive mechanisms and intensive affects indicate manic-depressive personality structure. Finally, finding of thinking disorders make conclusion of psychotic structure and self-fragmentation clear.
Key words: Rorschach method, personality structure/organization; psychodynamic and
qualitative approach; clinical example.

Manifestation of Perverse Personality Organizations in Rorschach According to Lausanne Group
Mabel Rodriguez, Roman Telerovský

Lausanne group approach to psychodiagnostics of personality is introduced. This approach is
based on psychodynamic analysis of speech and contents in Rorschach and other projective methods. The authors describe characteristic signs of perverse personality organization, a subtype of borderline personality organization according to Lausanne group. They deal with structural model of psychopathology, which is the perspective for personality assessing according to developmental level of basic dimensions of personality (ego, object relations, anxiety, defenses, thinking, reality testing etc.). In accord with J. Bergeret and O. Kernberg theories, they describe three personality organizations or levels of personality functioning: neurotic, borderline and psychotic. Perverse personality organization is defined and also approaches of J. McDougall and J. Chasseguet-Smirgel are mentioned. Detailed description of perverse signs in Rorschach and their possible diagnostic meaning is given.
Key words: Rorschach method; structural model of psychopathology; perverse organization;
psychodynamic analysis of speech; perverse signs.

Perverse Signs in Rorschach Protocol: Clinical Example
Roman Telerovský

The article is a clinical example of Rorschach protocol analysis based on psychoanalytically oriented thematic and contents analysis. Signs of perverse organization and their meaning are
observed at given male patient. Author consideration about perverse solution is based on integration of anamnestic data, nature of patient-examinator relationship and “perverse” signs in Rorschach (disavowal of sex differences and their complementarity, presence of fetishistic partial objects, defense overestimation of anal-sadistic components, omnipotent manipulation with reality and presence of another signs attached to perverse personality organization by Lausanne group). Comparison of thematic analysis interpretations with interpretative conclusion according to comprehensive system is pointed out.
Key words: Rorschach method; perverse organization; psychoanalytic thematic and content
analysis; perverse signs; clinical example.

Manifestations of Defenses and Level of Object Relations in Rorschach Method
Anton Polák

The paper concerns with some aspects of recent shifts in psychoanalytic theory concerning the concept of defense which have come with advances in the notion of defense the object relations theory and self psychology have brought. These two approaches reformulated the concept of defense in important and new ways. On the basis of these theoretical conceptualizations several methods were devised which have been widely used in research and clinical practice. They are designed to assess the specific defensive operations and the specifics of object relations development. The paper presents four of these scales together with the explanation of basic theoretical concepts in their backgrounds.
Key words: Rorschach method; object relations theory; self psychology; the concept of
defensive organization of the ego; scales.

Holt´s Scale for Assessing Primary Process Manifestations and Their Control
Anton Polák

The paper concerns with one of the first methods-systems that have used Freud´s drive theory and structural model of personality as a basis for translating theoretical formulations regarding defense into Rorschach related concepts. Robert Holt´s scoring manual designed to measure manifestations of primary process and its control published in 1977 provides several control and defense scores for assessing the manner in which the primary process material is regulated and modulated and how successfully this is accomplished. The paper presents the scale and the explanation of the basic theoretical concepts in its background.
Key words: Rorschach method; structural model of personality; primary process; defense;
Holt´s systém.

Meanings of Symmetry in Rorschach Method
Michael Václavík, Jan Ženatý

Symmetry presents an important component of stability and principle of equilibrium that an
ability ability to face up to changes, maintain constancy in unceasingly varying conditions.
Authors assume that similar psychological meaning is valid for the symmetrical organization of the Rorschach inkblots.
Text pays special attention to the difference between portraying of symmetry of dynamic
homeostasis in a process of substance conversion in between inner and outer mediums and representation of symmetry in inorganic or artificial setting. Dynamic, vital symmetry is displayed by mild asymmetry. Symmetry, which does not arise from procedure of exchange between inner and outer mediums, is exact and static.
The way subject treats symmetry in Rorschach method predicates the relation between internal (psychical) imagery and external (mainly physical) imagery of object. In common circumstances in between both images exists floating consonance, which subject does not notice. It becomes a matter of consideration only when more discrepancies that are remarkable can be found. People who are sensitive to symmetry of the Rorschach inkblots show difficulties in selfunderstanding (realizing the internal world) or in relationships to external objects.
Rorschach protocol of inpatient, unduly occupied by symmetry of the inkblots, is analyzed in
details. She is showing enormous need for identifying symmetric, totally identical objects.
Analysis of her responses reveals how — under the pressure of this need — her interpretations change living world to an inanimate and intentionally created world. Accidentality transforms into deliberateness. In a situation, when the patient is forced to meet and face up to infaust disease of her husband she shows signs of mechanical character, inanimateness, inability to mourn, incapability to name her emotions. Her clinical picture conforms to insentience of her inner world and shows lack of natural counterchange between inner and outer world.
Any clinician using Rorschach method shouldn’t avoid the meaning of symmetry, because
just as symmetry can be regarded as the fundamental principle of the inkblot’s concept, it is
firmly embedded principle of our life with many possible points of view.
Key words: Rorschach method, symmetry, stability of objects, mourning, development of
object relations, MOAS (Mutuality of Autonomy Scale), psychotherapy.

McCully Jungian Approach to Rorschach method
Jiří Šípek

Author points to non-traditional approach to Rorschach method. The main source of the text
consists in Robert McCully’s basic book on Jung and Rorschach (1971). This is also rather nonclinical approach using the idea of openness of Rorschach tables to various archetypes manifestation. In addition, McCully offers some laws of Rorschach experience to understand how archetypes display themselves. One of the most important ideas in Jungian use of Rorschach test refers to a deep mental connection of today’s people with Paleolithic era, when core features of human mental life were created.
Key words: Rorschach method, Jungian approach, archetypes, symbols, laws of Rorschach
experience.

Cognitive Characteristics of TAT Stories and their Diagnostic Meaning
Ivo Čermák, Táňa Fikarová

The authors define a framework for interpretation of cognitive characteristics of TAT stories.
They conceive story as a representation of self and as a manifestation of life coherence and continuity, narrativity as a way of story telling, trouble in story as a source of its development, and script as a set of principles for experience organization. They argue that narrative sensitivity is an essential diagnostic competency needed for story understanding. The story import is diferentiated in relation to the process of story telling and to the story content. Its diagnostic meaning is exemplified. Some approaches to evaluation of formal characteristic of TAT stories are compared. Hedwig Teglasi’s approach to cognitive characteristic evaluation is described profoundly. Explicative and diagnostically relevant possibilities of that approach are illustrated by the case study.
Key words: narrativity, story, narrative sensitivity, perceptual integration, concrete and
abstract thinking, information processing

Vulgar Contents in Multidimensional Drawing Test
Eva Mikušková

The article presents a projective test MDZT (Multidimensional drawing test) and the newly created category „vulgar contents“ in this test. The aim of the research was to verify meaningfulness of introducing new content category vulgar contents (that theoretically arises from Rorschach’s method — vulgar answers) into MDZT; next to monitor particularity of vulgar contents in MDZT considering gender, age and education and finally to verify construct validity of vulgar contents. After content analysis of drawn pictures from 100 participants aged 18 — 53, the list of vulgar contents (29 contents) was made. On the basis of verifying of construct validity author deduces that vulgar contents in MDZT can express the extent of social conformity, convention in reasoning and in assessing reality. Also there were found differences considering gender, age and number of drawn vulgar contents.
Key words: vulgar contents, Multidimensional drawing test, Rorschach method, construct
validity

The Rorschach Comprehensive System:
Applications in Psychotherapy Research
Adriana Lis, Daniela Di Riso, Silvia Salcuni, Alessandro Gennaro

Very few studies have used the Rorschach method to assess therapy progress, a surprisingly low number compared with the large amount of research on the Rorschach method in general and compared with the method’s widespread use in clinical settings. In this analysis, the low number of samples resulted in a clustering of certain types of data within single samples, for example, that object relations data came from only two studies, and almost all CS data from two others. This doesn’t suggest that the Rorschach method should be preferred to other instrument in psychotherapy studies, however this data shows that this method is not inferior to other in this context. The literature we have quoted highlight also many limitations: the literature is still very scarce, although we cannot share the importance of randomized designs,all the studies wehave quoted are or single cases or open trials. Metanalytic studies are very important, but they can be biased by the single studies they include. Gronerod study is very very important both for its results and its methodologic rigour, but the quoted studies are few and very old. The field is still in progress and we need more studies on the CS use in psychotherapy research.
Key words: Rorschach Comprehensive system; psychotherapy research; therapy progress

Application of Rorschach Method in the Czech Republic
Mojmír Svoboda, Tomáš Urbánek

The article yields results of an extensive research, which has spanned a representative sample
of Czech psychologists. It charts the using of particular psychodiagnostic methods. Special attention is paid to exploitation of Rorschach test. Frequency of its application is compared with the research of John E. Exner Jr. at the American psychologists. The Rorschach method is one of the most frequented tests which is used for the personality diagnosing, namely by all the psychologists without exception of professional orientation and clinical psychologists as well.
Key words: frequency of applied psychological methods, Rorschach method, clinical practice
and Rorschach method